Testicle pain is pain that occurs in or around one or both testicles. Sometimes testicle pain starts somewhere else in the groin or abdomen, and radiates into the testicles.
Testicle pain has a number of possible causes. The testicles are very sensitive, and even a minor injury can cause testicle pain or discomfort. Testicle pain may start in the testicle itself or in the coiled tube at the back of the testicle (epididymis). Sometimes, what seems to be testicle pain is caused by a problem that starts in the groin, abdomen or somewhere else — for example, kidney stones and some hernias may cause testicle pain. The cause of testicle pain can't always be identified.
Causes of testicle pain or pain in the testicle area can include:
- Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage caused by diabetes)
- Epididymitis (testicle inflammation)
- Gangrene (specifically, a type of gangrene called Fournier's gangrene)
- Henoch-Schonlein purpura (blood vessel inflammation)
- Hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum)
- Idiopathic testicular pain (unknown cause)
- Inguinal hernia
- Kidney stones
- Orchitis (inflamed testicle)
- Retractile testicle (a testicle that pulls up inside the groin — this condition occurs in young boys)
- Scrotal masses
- Spermatocele (fluid buildup in the testicle)
- Testicle injury or blow to the testicles
- Testicular torsion (twisted testicle)
- Testicular cancer
- Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism)
- Urinary tract infection
- Varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum)
When to see a doctor
Sudden, severe testicle pain can be a sign of testicular torsion — a twisted testicle that can quickly lose its blood supply. This condition requires immediate medical treatment to prevent loss of the testicle.
Seek immediate medical attention if you have:
- Sudden, severe testicle pain
- Testicle pain accompanied by nausea, fever, chills or blood in your urine
Schedule a doctor's visit if you have:
- Mild testicle pain lasting longer than a few days
- A lump or swelling in or around a testicle
These measures may help relieve mild testicle pain:
- Take an over-the-counter pain reliever such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), unless your doctor has given you other instructions. Never give aspirin to your child without talking to a doctor first.
- Support the scrotum with an athletic supporter. Use a folded towel for support when you're lying down.